Monday, August 31, 2009

Basic Network Problem

Sometimes we encounter failure connection in our local area network. There are some possible reasons that we can count. Maybe the driver version of your Network Card Interface, virus, or some in the hardware part (maybe the network card is not inserted properly, the cable is broken).
First thing to troubleshoot is looking first at the software side (network driver). Try to look at your Device Manager (Control Panel>System>Hardware). When clicking the device manager button, new windows will pop-up showing your system properties, get rid on Network Adapter, double-click it and a drop-down list of your network driver will appear showing their running status. To determine its running status, just right click the driver you want and select properties, there, it will tell you if the driver is running properly. Restart your PC and try to check the connection.
If still the same problem, it’s time for the hardware side, try to check everything at the back. Check first the Ethernet cable, the LED indicator beside the Ethernet port, followed with the network card, PCI slots and your network device (Hub, switch and router).
This article will guide you to determine some system error. This is only a basic tutorial and there is more reason why you encounter this and there are lots of advance solutions on this. Try to seek all over the internet. I hope it will help a little bit. Just leave a comment. Thanks

Basic PC troubleshooting

Basic PC Problem #5

Some problem with your PC it did not cooperate with your printer, in short you can’t print when printer device attach in your PC. There’s a lot of possibilities may we can reason out with this problem but before going to another conclusion let’s step first to the basic but most applied solution.

First, log-in to your administrator (if you have)

Second, go to your Control Panel.

Third, Administrative Tools.

Fourth, Service.

Fifth, you can find there all the settings of your PC

Sixth, under the Service, find Printer Spooler.

Seventh, try to look at the status of your Printer Spooler if it is disable, automatic or manual

Eight, when disable, just double click it and start the service, when automatic, stop the service and then start it again.

Ninth, restart your PC.

That’s it, after trying to do this and the same problem still occur, maybe something problem in the other component of your PC or maybe in your printer device. Try to search troubleshooting tips with your printer brand and model.

Basic PC troubleshooting

Basic PC problem #4

When you are using your PC and something goes wrong such as freezing the application you use or some new window pops-up and you are trying hard to back it to normal. There's an easy way to kill those unwanted pops-up.

First, from your keyboard, press Ctrl+Alt+delete.
Second, new window will pop-up appearing all active application running in your system including those unwanted application.
Third, just delete the unwanted application.
Forth, you're done. You made it, your system now is running back to normal.

Good luck. Please leave me a comment.

Basic PC troubleshooting

Basic PC problem #3

My monitor is black.
  1. Make sure the monitor is turned on. Try pressing the power button on the monitor again.
  2. Check to see if it is in sleep mode. Wiggle the mouse around or press the enter key.
  3. If the green light is not on in front, check the power cord connecting the monitor into the outlet.
  4. If the green light is on, check the brightness level by using the buttons on the monitor.
  5. Check the cable connection from the monitor into the computer or the equipment that links your computer to the TV monitor.
  6. If you still have some problems, call your help desk.

Basic PC troubleshooting

Basic PC problem #2

When booting the machine the following message appears:
"Windows was not properly shut down. One or more of your disk drives may have errors on it. Press any key to run ScanDisk on these drives."

The machine did not use the shut down sequence. Press the enter key and allow the machine to do a scan. If it finds lost clusters to repair, click on the OK to let it do self-repairing. You do not need to save these so select DELETE or Don’t Save when asked to make a choice.

Basic PC troubleshooting

Basic Problem #1:

During your work session the following message appears:
Not enough memory/ Insufficient memory:


- There are too many programs opened at the same time. Close some and try again.

- Memory leaks have probably occurred. Reboot the machine.

Friday, August 28, 2009


Point To Point Protocol (PPP)

PPP was first proposed as a standard by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 1989 and became a working standard in 1994. The IETF specification for PPP is RFC 1661. PPP is a protocol most widely used by Internet service providers (ISPs) to enable dial up connections to the Internet. PPP facilitates the transmission of data packets between point to point links. Originally designed to work with serial connections, PPP was adopted by ISPs to provide dial up Internet access. PPP can be encapsulated in a number of data link layer protocols, including Ethernet (PPPoE) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (PPPoA).

PPP uses Link Control Protocol (LCP) to establish a session between a user's computer and an ISP. LCP is responsible for determining if the link is acceptable for data transmission. LCP packets are exchanged between multiple network points to determine link characteristics including device identity, packet size, and configuration errors.

PPP supports three types of user authentication protocols that provide varying levels of security. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is an access control protocol used to authenticate a user's password on the network access server. The network access server requests a password from the client machine and sends the retrieved password to an authentication server for verification. As an authentication protocol, PAP is considered the least secure because the password is not encrypted in transmission.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is similar to PAP with several unique characteristics. Instead of requesting a password, the network access server sends a challenge message to the client machine. The challenge message is a random value. The client machine encrypts the challenge message with a user's password and sends the combination back to the access server. The access server forwards the challenge/password combination to the authentication server.
The authentication server encrypts the challenge with the user's password stored in the authentication database. If the user's response is a match, the password is considered authentic. CHAP uses the model of a shared secret (the user password) to authenticate the user. The use of CHAP is considered a moderately secure method of authentication.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is considered an authentication framework used by a number of secure authentication protocols. EAP is most commonly used for authentication on wireless networks.

Thursday, August 27, 2009


If you encounter data loss in your system drive or any portable drive, Windows XP has a built in data recovery tool, compare to a some data recovery software, this is not so powerful but it give us quite ease to some basic mistake. Basically, data will loss due to a broken cable connected between data storage and the system or maybe the system is shutdown while using the data.

This is the basic steps to recover your data using the windows built-in function.

First, Go to START>RUN then type CMD
Second, a DOS prompt will pop-up
Third, in prompt page, type CHKDSK /letter of the drive u want to recover wait for a few minutes because the system try to recall the previous data saved in the derive
Finally, try to open the drive if your data are all in there.

that's it, Good luck.


This is a basic instruction on how to Map a network drive in Windows XP.

In my case, the name of the drives and destination is different. You have to set your own, this is only for the sake of tutorial.

To start, o
pen My computer

Go to Tools, click it and a drop down list will appear.

Select the Map
Network drive

A new window will appear, set whatever letter you want in your drive and browse a location from the entire network or local area network.

Click Finish.

In your My Computer, a net
worked drive appear.

That's it, you can access the network drive,anytime throughout the network.
Enjoy. Please leave a comment. Thanks

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

What is DHCP?, dynamic host configuration protocol overview, network tutorials, troubleshooting tips, subnetting, IP addressing. DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a network protocol, which is configured in such a way that is provides the IP addresses to the network computers automatically. There is no need to assign the IP address to the client computers individually. DHCP assigns the IP addresses from the given range of the numbers also called DHCP scope.
On the other end, client computers are configured in such a way that they get the IP addresses automatically from the DHCP server during the boot up process. Additionally, DNS and WINS servers can also be configured with the DHCP server.
When a computer starts up it gets the IP addresses from the DHCP server from the defined pool of addresses. The assigning of the IP address by the DHCP server can be categorized as follows


1. A user turns on the computer with the DHCP client enabled on it.
2. The client PC sends broadcast request (known as DHCP DISCOVER) and then look for the DHCP server to answer.
3. The DHCP server receives the DISCOVER packet and based on the availability and defined settings, the server choose any available IP address and then give to the client. Then DHCP server sends back to the client with DHCP OFFER with that available address information.
4. Again client sends a request to DHCP server known as DHCP REQUEST, in which it lets the server know that it is using the address offered by the DHCP.
5. The DHCP server then again send a acknowledgement to the client known as DHCP ACK, in which it confirm the client that the specific IP address has been assigned to it for a given period of time.

This process of assigning the IP addresses by the DHCP server also known as DORA (Discover, Offer, Request, and Acknowledgement).

When a computer uses a static IP address there can be the chances of error and conflict when two computers use the same IP address. By using the DHCP server there are no chances of such kind of conflicts and errors.

Along with the IP addresses, the DHCP server also enables the client computers to extract all the settings and configurations from the DHCP server on an IP network. These settings include the Firewall, Router, DNS, NAT, WINS, Gateway and Subnet masks settings.

The overall purpose of the DHCP server is to reduce the workload and error margins, which can occur in assigning the IP addresses manually.

The IP address assigned by the DHCP server is for the limited or leased period of time and if a client needs an to extend that leased period for the IP address then client must send a extension request to the DHCP server before this period expires. If the client do not send an extension request, then this IP address becomes free on expiration and is assigned to another client. If a user wants to change the IP address given by the DHCP server then he/she do it by giving these commands on the command prompt.

IPconfig/release then IPconfig/renew

This command will remove the current IP address and assign a new IP address to the client.
There can also be some reserved addresses based on the MAC address or hostname of the client. These reserved addresses are fixed addresses and can only be assigned to the fixed clients.

MAC Address


A MAC address is an address which exists on Layer 2 of the OSI Model.

Layer 2 of the OSI model is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a network node gains access to the data and permission to transmit it.

MAC addresses are globally unique addressed that are written into hardware at the time of manufacture. For this reason, MAC addresses are sometimes called Burned In Addresses (BIA).

After manufacture, it is possible in many cases to change the MAC address of a device in software.

MAC addresses are used by many different Layer 2 technologies, including Ethernet, Token Ring, 802.11, Bluetooth, FDDI, ATM, SCSI, and Fibre Channel.

Because MAC addresses originated in the Ethernet specification, the MAC address is sometimes referred to as the Ethernet Address.

A MAC address is 48 bits long. This means that there are 281,474,976,710,656 possible MAC addresses.

A sample MAC address looks like this:


The first three bytes of this address (00-0C-F1) identify the manufacture of this network device, in this case Intel.

These first three bytes are assigned by the IEEE and the database is available online at IEEE OUI and Company_id Assignments.

The last three bytes of this address were assigned by Intel when they device was manufactured.

Monday, August 24, 2009

Domain Name Server (DNS)

How DNS (Domain Name Server) works?

When we type a web address in our browser [like] and hit go, the request goes to our local ISP servers who translate that domain name into a hard-to-remember IP address [like]

While this address resolution mechanism is transparent to the average internet user, it can sometimes be the main reason for slow internet access if the DNS servers of your ISP are acting choppy or not working at all.

To overcome these problems, you can consider changing your DNS server name to a more reliable but free service called OpenDNS. There's no software to install, just a small tweak in your internet connection settings.

We just replaced the default DSN server address of our ISP with the OpenDNS servers which are :

The DNS server can be changed from the TCP/IP Properties section. [Control Panel -> Network Connections -> Local Network Connection -> TCP IP Properties]

Why OpenDNS is good ? Your domain resolution request to OpenDNS is executed from the nearest physical location and the address are also cached at their end. Therefore you notice faster internet browsing.

Second OpenDNS would auto-correct misspelled domain names [or typos]. For instance, if you type by mistake, you'll be redirected to without any interventation. The other advantage is that you have a much safer browsing experience since OpenDNS would prevent you from visiting a scam website by error.

Some precautions before using OpenDNS

1. In the extreme situation when OpenDNS servers go down, you should keep the address of your ISP DNS servers handy.

2. You can turn off the phishing protection or auto typo correction by visiting the OpenDNS preferences page.

3. Some users might have privacy concerns with OpenDNS while some dislike seeing ads when they mis-spell domain names. The choice is completely your's here.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

What is DSL?

DSL, or Digital Subscriber Line, is a type of high speed Internet access. When deciding on which type of Internet access to get, you may have several options: dial up, DSL, cable, fiber optic, satellite, mesh wireless or point distribution wireless. However, in many geographic locations you may be limited in the types of Internet access that are available to you.

DSL Internet access is delivered across the telephone network backbone, an ordinary telephone connection jack can be used to plug in to DSL Internet access. Not all phone companies offer DSL service in every residential area, so even if phone service is available, it does not necessarily mean that DSL will also be available.

You can get DSL service from companies other than your local phone company, however, so even if the phone company doesn't provide DSL service, there may be other local companies who do.
As compared to a dialup connection, where a modem is used to connect to the Internet over the phone lines, DSL is always on. There is no need to dial in or disconnect. And DSL is generally much faster than a dialup connection which is limited to 56k.

DSL speed and bandwidth are usually somewhat lower than cable, which is available wherever cable TV service is available; however cable Internet access is a shared media. What this means is that if cable is available in your area, all users who are connected to the cable hub share a fixed amount of bandwidth. The more devices that are connected, the less bandwidth each user gets. With DSL, each user has a dedicated circuit and doesn't share bandwidth on that circuit with any other users.

Even though with DSL you don't have to share access with other users, the closer your home is located to a telephone company's central office switch, the better. This is a physical building where the local switching equipment is located. Distance to the switch is a determining factor for whether or not DSL service is available, and what speed will be available.

DSL service introduces interference on your phone line. It is necessary to eliminate this "noise" by using a filter supplied by your DSL provider.

The most common types of DSL for home connections are ADSL, SDSL, IDSL and RADSL.
ADSL is Asymmetric DSL

Download speeds are much faster than upload speeds. This is the most common type of DSL access for home connections.

SDSL is Symmetric DSL
Upload and download speeds are
virtually the same, or symmetric. This is a good connection for gaming or hosting a server and typically costs more than ADSL.

IDSL provides a maximum 144kb per second connection (which is slow) and it is based on ISDN technology which makes it available at farther distances from the central office switch. It also costs more than SDSL access.

RADSL is Rate Adaptive DSL
Speed on RADSL connections varies based on line conditions. In some situations this is the only DSL service available, but ADSL or SDSL would be preferable.

Sunday, August 23, 2009


Network Ping - Testing Commands and Utilities

In computer networking, ping is a process for sending test messages from one computer to another to check the health of network connections. Ping tests are run using various software commands and utility programs.

What is Ping?
Ping is the name of a standard utility used to test network connections. Ping utilities are part of Windows, Mac OS X and Linux as well as some network routers and game consoles.

What Is a Computer Ping Test?
A ping test determines the latency (communication delay) between your computer and another computer on a network. Using ping tests can be useful when troubleshooting network problems, and they are also an important consideration for online gaming and other interactive applications.

IP Configuration


Configure IP (internet protocol configuration)


IPCONFIG /all Display full configuration information.

IPCONFIG /release [adapter] Release the IP address for the specified adapter.

IPCONFIG /renew [adapter] Renew the IP address for the specified adapter.

IPCONFIG /flushdns Purge the DNS Resolver cache.

IPCONFIG /registerdns Refresh all DHCP leases and re-register DNS


IPCONFIG /displaydns Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache.

IPCONFIG /showclassid adapter Display all the DHCP class IDs allowed for adapter.

IPCONFIG /setclassid adapter [classid] Modify the dhcp class id.

If the Adapter name contains spaces, use quotes: "Adapter Name"
wildcard characters * and ? allowed, see the examples below

The default is to display only the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for each adapter bound to TCP/IP.

For Release and Renew, if no adapter name is specified, then the IP address leases for all adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed.

For Setclassid, if no ClassId is specified, then the ClassId is removed.

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